Policy Crossover Center
Vienna - Europe

Research Topic 1/2018

Europäische Nachbarschaftspolitik & Bildung

Europa braucht interne Reformen, aber ebenso neue Partnerschaften mit der potenziell dynamischen, wenn auch instabilen und heterogenen Nachbarschaft im Osten und im Süden. Die Stärke Europas liegt in den Bereichen Bildung, Konfliktlösung, Digitalisierung und Rechtsstaatlichkeit, nicht bei militärischen Interventionen und auch nicht in Großprojekten wie Seidenstraßen, Pipelines und Staudämmen, die von China forciert werden. Die Förderung immaterieller Investitionen und die Zusammenarbeit mit Nachbarn wird entscheiden, ob Europa von einem “ring of friends” oder einem “ring of fire” umgeben sein wird. Ohne Partnerschaften mit den Nachbarländern schrumpft die globale Bedeutung Europas, Migration kann nicht gesteuert werden und Europa kann weder die Globalisierung gestalten noch Technologierführer bei Energieeffizienz und Eingrenzung des Klimawandels werden. Die Bildung spielt jedoch derzeit weder in den internen Reformen noch in der Entwicklung europäischer Partnerschaften eine angemessene Rolle.

Dieses Projekt wurde unterstützt durch den Zukunftsfonds der Republik Österreich.

Flash Paper Series

Our Flash Paper Series has been designed to give the single authors of the Research Topics an opportunity to highlight their opinions, views and ideas. This gives the necessary space to present a research topic in its variety of dimensions. According to a discursive exchange of opinions on a topic, however, also the interested public has the possibility to read about concrete concepts and ideas of an author, beyond the final product of the Policy Brief, which often can not adequately present a multitude of ideas and perspectives in its details. The Policy Crossover Platform dissociates from the individual opinions of the authors in the Flash Papers. Therefore, the Flash Paper Series complements the final output of the Research Topic (Policy Brief, Working Paper) and describes the views of the authors in their individual contributions to this topic in detail.

Flash Paper 5/2018
China Ascendancy, Trade War, Global Order

The global trade regime is breaking down. An all-out trade war has become a possibility. In order to prevent economic chaos, the European Union and China must devise new global trade and investment rules and commit to follow them.

Bayer, K. (2018), China Ascendancy, Trade War, Global Order, Policy Crossover Center: Vienna-Europe, Flash Paper 5/2018, Vienna. 


Flash Paper 4/2018
Economic Links between Education and Migration: An Overwiew

Among the many factors governing migration, education plays a major role, though more in the long run than for short-term floods particularly of irregular migration. Concerning the long run effects, the direction of causation and the slope of the connection are debated in theory. Education not only determines the mobility of people, it also is positively correlated with rising incomes. Empirical evidence shows that for people in developing countries, who are at the low end of the income distribution, more education and rising income levels are push factors for emigration. However, beyond a certain threshold further rising incomes tend to retard migration. As a result, education exhibits an inverted-U shaped relationship with migration. Another remarkable fact is that, on average, people who migrate are better educated than non-migrants back home as well as indigenous people in the host country. 

Handler, H. (2018), Economic Links between Education and Migration: an Overview, Policy Crossover Center: Vienna - Europe, Flash Paper 4/2018, Vienna. 


Flash Paper 3/2018
Austrian School in Shkodra, Albania, as a Best Practice Example for European Integration in Education

In 2007 the Austrian Technical College of Higher Education for Information Technology opened its gates in Shkodra, Albania. This school is part of the efforts of the Austrian government to support the economic, technological and social development of the West Balkan countries. This paper looks into the original intentions for the establishment of this school in the economically underdeveloped north of Albania. After ten years of operation a first attempt is made to assess how these intentions have been met. Do graduates of the school contribute to the development of the Albanian economy or do they contribute to the brain drain when highly qualified technicians leave their home country to live elsewhere in Europe? Will this school help Albania in its efforts to join the European Union? It is probably still too early to give final answers to these questions but it seems worthwhile to look at first trends.

Bruckner, G. (2018), Austrian School in Shkodra, Albania, as a Best Practice Example for European Integration in Education, Policy Crossover Center: Vienna - Europe, Flash Paper 3/2018, Vienna.


Flash Paper 2/2018
Migration and Education - Building on Common Grounds

This paper aims to shed light on the multifaceted and interrelated processes of education and migration, assessing how investment in and improvement of education can contribute towards more effective migration management and mobilities, a partial prevention of emigration in countries of origin, selection and support of migrants in countries of transit and destination and a better integration. The three spotlights selected to provide insight into the prospects of investment in education are: a) the importance of equal access to and quality of education according to the findings of UNESCO and OECD reports, b) the significance of fostering human capital, and c) the prospects of mobility programmes. While, in terms of host countries and integration, a focus lies on European states – Austria, in particular – Middle Eastern and North African countries being the origin of significant numbers of migrants in the aftermath of the Arab Spring, will be in the centre of case studies with regard to mobility and exchange.

Kohlenberger, J. & Wurm, L. (2018), Migration and Education - Building on Common Grounds, Policy Crossover Center: Vienna-Europe, Flash Paper 2/2018, Vienna. 


Flash Paper 1/2018
It’s the Implementation, Stupid! Evidence on Improving Learning Outcomes form the Colombian Escuela Nueva School Model

Escuela Nueva (New School), a school model designed to improve the learning outcomes of disadvantaged children, has officially been widely used in Colombia for years. However, the country’s performance on international standardized tests of learning remains poor. This study uses a mixed methods approach to analyze program implementation and learning outcomes (as measured by the standardized test Pruebas SABER 2013) and finds that the model indeed improves learning outcomes, but that its effectiveness depends strongly on proper program implementation, which is found to be lacking.

Hammler, K. (2018), It's the Implementation, Stupid! Evidence on Improving Learning Outcomes from the Colombian Escuela Nueva School Model, Policy Crossover Center: Vienna-Europe, Flash Paper 1/2018, Vienna. 

Policy Brief 2/2018
Education - Key to Welfare and External European Partnerships

Cooperation in education and partnerships with non-European neighbours in the East and South will shape the future of the ageing continent as well as the role of Europe in the globalising world. This is grossly neglected in policy, the media and public opinion. One reason is that the importance of education to incomes and well-being is generally well known, but not adequately reflected in the current strategy of the EU or its member countries. As a consequence Europe also does not invest in cooperation and stability in its potentially dynamic neighbourhood. The possibility and necessity of an education-based partnership with neighbours is the core of the strategy we propose. This report recalls the benefits of education for individuals and societies. More closely connecting education to the Sustainable Development Goals as defined by the UN Agenda 2030 is recommended. Education is the best contribution Europe can offer for ending poverty and increasing growth and stability in the European Neighbourhood, as opposed to “silk roads” or other megaprojects, or fighting terrorism through military interventions. The European Neighbourhood in this study is defined as the non-European countries in the East, the Black Sea area, the Middle East and North Africa; in the wider sense it also includes Sub-Saharan Africa. Education is also defined in a broader sense as including investment in problem and conflict solving, governance and rule of law, social innovations, informal competencies and cultural dialogue. The report also carves out preconditions for an education-based strategy and suggests general principles that Europe has to follow to maximise the impact of this strategy in a quickly changing world. It makes a rough estimate of how much additional investment of Europe is needed, and how it can be financed with a minimal direct burden on taxpayers. Accounting also for the long-run returns of the education-based strategy, a net advantage for European finance can be envisaged. The final goal of the study is to delineate partnerships with non-European neighbours built on mutual learning and understanding that will allow Europe to shape “responsible” globalisation and enjoy rising incomes, social cohesion and well-being at home. Creating jobs in the source countries of migration is more efficient and welfare increasing than “a Europe that protects” through military force and new fences – a message important for next the EU presidencies and election campaigns.

Aiginger, K. (2018), Education: Key to Welfare and External European Partnerships, Policy Crossovercenter: Vienna-Europe, Policy Brief 2/2018, Vienna.

Aiginger, K. (2018), Education: Key to Welfare and External European Partnerships, Policy Crossover center: Vienna-Europe, Executive Summary to Policy Brief 2/2018, Vienna.

Policy Briefs